Vine Varieties in other Countries
VARIETIES OF VINES IN OTHER COUNTRIES
2.2 North America viticulture vine varieties: United States of America, Canada and Mexico - “Old Colonial” Viticulture
Viticulture was introduced to California by Catholic religious orders (1769, Fra Junipero Serra of the Franciscan Order), following the first Spanish immigration, and then adopted by the States (1850). The period of Prohibition (1919-1933) almost led to its abandonment.
The subsequent restoration of quality viticulture saw two valleys established: Napa Valley and Sonoma Valley, areas that today fall entirely into the category of world viticulture districts aimed at quality production; called AVA in the USA.
The low air humidity does not allow fungal infections to develop, so frequent and harmful in Europe.
Table 2.17.a. United States wine grape varieties, highlight viticulture based on few varieties, the renowned French AOC areas: Bordeaux, Burgundy, and Champagne, that maintain their varietal identity in the wines and company brands.
Zinfandel (bl.) stands out among the vines as a typical Californian variety, occupying almost 10% of the vineyard surface area. This variety in the Italian register is a synonym of Primitivo di Gioia (bl.). It would be interesting to confirm or not, it is the relation to the Croatian Tribidrag, as some authors claim.
The San Joaquin Valley is a suitable vine growing area and destined to the cultivation of table and dried grapes, with over 115,000 ha. The sector is in continual evolution thanks to the introduction of intraspecific crosses, especially those with the seedless quality that universities and private companies are particularly interested. The return of “royalties” from new varieties adopted and used by many countries in the world has created a virtuous circle: “research – viticulture - market.”
With the introduction of the Pinot Noir (bl.) variety, as a mirror effect of the Côte d’Or, the states of Washington and Oregon have seen a recent expansion of vine growing areas.
The states around the Great Lakes, which saw the arrival of the Pilgrim Fathers and WASP colonization, maintain viticulture with a Protestant ethic and, therefore, aimed at the production of grape juice and the agro-industry, based on native varieties, as can be seen in the table mentioned above.
Small-sized viticulture is also present in other states, still unable to produce critical mass, Texas (1,376 ha), Virginia (1,052 ha) and Georgia (708 ha).
Mexico (table 2.17.b Mexico wine grape varieties) boasts wine-grape viticulture in Lower California and Aguascalientes, whose origins date back to the first colonization. The recent development of viticulture for the table and dried grapes has brought about a significant increase in the cultivated surface area in the Ensenada and Mexicali areas, which enjoy a right climate suitable to early grape ripening.
Viticulture in Canada (table 2.17.c Canada wine grape varieties) also overlooks the Great Lakes, as well as the westernmost point, opposite the US viticulture, in the Bay of Vancouver. This viticulture significantly limited by the climate requires a high level of professionalism.
Translation: JANE UPCHURCH & MATTEO MARENGHI