World Viticulture

GIANFRANCO TEMPESTA
MONICA FIORILO

6. VINE ECOLOGY

Professor Domizio Cavazza (1856-1913) in the volume “Viticulture,” from which we enclose Table 1, indicates the geographical distribution of Ampelidaceae and the vine in the world (1) (figure 4.8 Distribution of vines and the main Ampelidaceae in the world). In this document, besides the Vitis vinifera, he indicated other species with their soil and climatic needs such as Vitis labrusca, Vitis amurensis, which can colonise areas at higher latitudes, and species present between 0° (equator) and 20°, e.g. Vitis caribaea.

UTET

The table highlights the isotherms and the limits of cultivation and does not consider the role the photoperiod plays on vines.

While the thousand-year-old viticulture settlements in the Mediterranean Basin found a “protected” habitat (“The Spread of Viticulture of Excellence in Protected Areas in Italy”(2)) the newly established Vitis vinifera viticulture faces limitations. Despite the studies on adaptability indices, they found lacks of water, new parasites -the scale insect Margarodes vitis, the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa that causes Pierce’s disease, and others) and often unsuitable soils and climates. The parameters used by several researchers demonstrate the difficulties facing new areas, proposed as viticultural settlements, imposed from above.

Therefore, the Vitis vinifera, as indicated in the figures, has established itself:

Today, the vine-growing success of Pacific Asia, between 30° and 45 north (China, Japan, South Korea) is due to the use of native grape varieties of the Vitis genus or hybrids with Vitis vinifera that are particularly resistant to diseases or extreme meteoric events. In these areas, the introduction of European vines is recent and not sufficiently consolidated.

The "Asian viticulture at the foot of the Roof of the World" is developing between 35° and 45° north with native or well-acclimatized varieties.

On the whole, Asian viticulture is aimed more at personal consumption than the market.

Figures 4.9a and 4.9b: Hours of sunlight, phenology, and hormonal balance, summarize the above explanation, both for the northern and southern hemispheres.

  Figure 6a

Figure 6b

 


(1) Volume published posthumously in 1914 in the “Nuova Enciclopedia Agraria Italiana”  (New Italian Agrarian Encyclopaedia) published by UTET, Turin and reprinted in 1923.

(2) Document presented by the authors in the 35th World Congress of Vine and Wine – Izmir 2012. Ideal territories with soils and climates suitable for vinegrowing, with foothill areas, availability of water, no excesses of heat, southern exposure, protection from the Bora and Tramontane winds (easterly and northerly respectively), all factors that affect the physiology of the vine, making it more resistant to parasites.

 

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