The wines have acquired the following classification over time:
For the DOs, the link to the region is predominant and there are very precise rules; for the GIs, the cultivation areas are wider and a varietal indication prevails.
Each DO is subject to Production Regulations and third parties (for example Valoritalia) certify that these are respected by the operators throughout the supply chain.
Before bottling, the wines are subjected to chemical and physical analyses at authorised laboratories, then to sensory tests by the Tasting Commission set up at the Chamber of Commerce.
Current regulations allow varietal indication on table wines without reference to the production area; it is an emerging category but will not be analysed in this document.
From Legislative Decree 8th April 2010 no. 61 Art.1: “The Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) of wines, means the geographical name of a particularly suitable winegrowing area used to designate a renowned quality product, whose characteristics are essentially or exclusively connected to the natural environment and human factors. Some traditionally used terms also make up a designation of origin, as per the conditions provided for by article 118-ter, paragraph 2, of EC regulation no. 1234/2007.”;
Art. 3: “The Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), regarding products referred to in this decree, are classified as:
The same Legislative Decree Art 1 2. “The protected geographical indication (PGI) of wines means the geographical name of an area used to designate the product derived from it and which possesses the quality, fame and specific characteristics attributable to the said area”. And in Art. 3, 3. The PGIs, regarding the products referred to in this decree, include the typical geographical indications (TGI). The typical geographical indication consists in the specific traditional reference used by Italy to designate PGI wines as regulated by the European Community. The reference “Vin de pays” may be used for TGI wines produced in Val d'Aosta, a bilingual French-Italian area, “Landwein” for TGI wines produced in the province of Bolzano, a bilingual German-Italian area, and “deželma oznaka” for TGI wines produced in the provinces of Trieste, Gorizia and Udine, in accordance with the above-mentioned law of 23rd February 2001, no. 38.
Le tabelle riportano dati degli autori ricavati da FEDERDOC e degli enti che operano nel settore (ISTAT, AGEA).
Gli universi delle istituzioni citate sono differenti; la prassi del declassamento da categorie superiori a inferiori per il dinamismo del mercato genera ulteriori discordanze.
In tabella 10.0 Produzione Vino e Superficie per Regione sono sintetizzati i dati delle ultime annate.